The most important Arctic monitoring results in 2013:
- The Greenland Ice Sheet contributed net 1.2 mm freshwater to global sea level.
- The surface mass balance was lower than normal with a gain of 166 Gt vs. an average since 1990 of 368 Gt.
- The sea ice extent was 21 % lower than normal (5.9 million km2 vs. the 1981-2009 average of 7.5 million km2).
- Record warmth in late July promoted strong ice sheet surface melting.
- The wind helped to maintain both ice sheet and sea ice.
- The glacier front positions had no strong deviations.